Monday, August 14, 2017

Crossing the River
Chapter Two
Pages 20-25
 
     John Howe fantasized.
     Who could say what a resourceful young knave might discover prowling about in the dark? He imagined himself, holding his shoes, stealing out the door while the two officers snored. Thirty minutes later he would be looking at a weather-worn outbuilding, inside which the town’s powder was kept. The next morning, when they were all downstairs, he would mention the building to Innkeeper Jones to see how the grouch-faced proprietor reacted. The secret out -- Jones admitting to it -- De Berniere, flaming amazed, would declare, “I’ll be damned!”
     “Howe. Pack our effects.”
     He started.
     De Berniere gestured at the table and the floor. “We are finished here. We leave for Boston tomorrow morning, by way of Shrewsbury, Marlborough, and Sudbury. Leave my sketching material separate. I will be mapping the way.”
     “Yes sir.”
     They had given up!
     He wondered just how useful De Berniere’s sketches of this or any road would be without the General knowing the whereabouts of the town’s powder. It would be like readying the squire's horse for the hunt, he wanted to say, without knowing the day of it. So it was too bad for the Yellow Sashes back at the Province House, and too bad for them. To be defeated, despite all their work, by one sour-faced innkeeper!
Not if he had been in charge.
 
 
     The next morning Howe had changed his anger to disappointment. Better to have their mission end poorly, he had reasoned, than not to have had it. He had relished the physical activity, the food, and the lodging. He had enjoyed the locals, very much like him, commoners he had sometimes chatted while Browne and De Berniere had kept their mouths shut, trying to be like him! Entertainment! The fun of watching De Berniere get his way without Browne knowing it! Never had he been entertained so much beginning with the day the black tavern maid, flirting with him, had identified Browne.
     Captain Browne! Maybe the man knew something about soldiering, but he was not his better!
     Walking these roads had given him lengthy stretches of time to think!
     Foremost of his thoughts was how much his life had changed since that day he had signed up! A stable boy at Audley, his father a personal servant to the Squire, he had chosen to put on the red coat and white stock and here he was tramping about Massachusetts Colony the servant of a simpleton captain turned spy! Not in his wildest imaginings!
     His decision to leave Audley had been plain eighteen-year-old stupid! How quickly he had come to hate soldiering! During the rare occasions when he had been permitted the chance to think, he had analyzed his mistake.
     He had come to see himself a beast of burden, each day suffering the same food -- salt beef and beer -- the same work, the same abuse. Several months ago he had had the mind to change that. His father, by example, had taught him how to serve the high and mighty. The company captain's servant having died of the malignant spotted fever, Howe had pressed his case. Here he was on this gray, wet winter morning walking this road because that very captain, wanting to advance his career, had volunteered to try his hand at spying!
     Serving Browne had not been that much of an improvement. His food and lodging were better; his work was not. The plow was gone; the bit in his mouth had remained. Walking these country roads, served at the same tavern table with Browne and De Berniere, given a pinch of freedom to exercise his lights, he had enjoyed the bit’s temporary removal. He would be back in Boston very soon, back to the same drudgery, to Browne’s daily abuse. Twice this morning he had thought about the lad in the teamster’s wagon. Doing that would be the ultimate right turn in any young knave’s life, wouldn’t it? The hard part about making that big a change, he thought, was not the doing so much but not knowing whether the doing was smart or stupid. What was so special about the lives of these country people, he wondered, that made them so rebellious?
     He heard behind him the clopping sound of an approaching horse. They had been passed twice by disinterested travelers. This one, too, would probably not want to talk. Walking ten feet behind his officers, his head down, he trudged.
 Seconds later, he saw that the rider, ahead of them now, had stopped. He was staring at them! Blood and bones! The day’s first excitement! What should he say? “We be intendin’ t’visit a friend,” a friend that had better be living in some distant town, he thought, the rider more than naught a local! And there was Browne, and De Berniere, musket-barrel straight -- he had to laugh -- taking measured strides toward this provincial like soldiers on parade!
     The rider turned his horse, moved it forward. The man looked twice over his right shoulder. Seconds later he kicked his horse’s ribs. They disappeared over a hill.
     A bit of excitement that! Howe thought. Whoever the man was, he’d gotten his eyeballs’ full! What would his two Jack-Puddings be deciding to do now?  
     They formed a triangle in the middle of the road.
     “That, I suspicion, was a militiaman,” Browne began.
     “He takes with him a detailed account of us, make no doubt!” De Berniere answered. “Expect his return, with, at a minimum, ten militiamen!”
     Browne rubbed his chin.
     The rasp of a crow reached Howe from tree limbs beyond a damp field.
     “Since it is some distance to Marlborough, the nearest settlement,” De Berniere offered, “we are safe, for awhile. We need not be alarmed.”
     Howe disagreed.
     “An hour would you say?”
     “Perhaps.”
     “Then we should carry on, locate a copse of trees, a barn, remain there until after they pass,” Browne said.
     What would be the sense of that? Howe thought.
     De Berniere touched, then scratched his left ear. “Let us not forget, sir, that to carry on we must pass through Marlborough.”
     Wanting to grin, Howe stared at his shoes.
     “Corporal Howe!”
     He almost jumped.
     “What, corporal, is your take on this thorny situation?” His hands gripping his elbows, De Berniere waited.
      Hell fire!
     Howe fought the urge to swallow. He swallowed. There stood Browne, eyebrows raised like a magistrate’s, expecting something stupid. “I’ve … I’ve a mind we d’go back t’ Worcester,” he said, facing De Berniere.
     “Back to Worcester?!” Browne exclaimed. “What in God’s name for?!”
     “By yer leave, Captain,” Howe answered, hiding his resentment. “There's naught but difficulty ahead an' the only other road t’Boston be the old one we d’take.”
     Browne stared down his bony nose.
“So I figure we should go back through Worcester, not stoppin', get on t’Grafton, an’ spend the night at Framingham, where we was before.”
     “Humph.”
     Browne scowled at distant treetops. Staring at the crest of the hill where the militiaman had disappeared, De Berniere slapped his right thigh.
     Why did you bother to ask?
     “Damme, to turn tail and run! I do not countenance it!”
     “But the alternative, Captain?”
     “Yes, the alternative!” Brown pressed his right thumb against the side of his jaw. He spat on the dirt. “I allow there is more danger ahead of us than behind. Damme, I allow that!”
     Howe realized De Berniere’s purpose.
     “Clearly the rider intends to intercept us,” the ensign responded.
     He waits, giving Browne time to own his thinking. Howe scraped the soles of his shoes on the road’s gritty surface.
 They would be returning to the inn at Framingham after all, which was what De Berniere had expected him to say. Back to the same room, maybe, he the servant, arranging the basin of hot water, the towels, the sponge, wringing the sponge over the basin after the two had bathed, emptying the murky water in the mound of pine needles outside the inn’s rear door. He was taken suddenly by De Berniere's use of him. It suggested the ensign had some regard for him. Had he been De Berniere’s servant, his situation might have been acceptable. But he was Browne’s servant!
     “All right! Damme! Discretion having primacy, I agree!” Browne grimaced. “We will walk through Worcester without stopping, allowing us to reach Buckminster Tavern before dark!” He frowned at the roadway. “The General's troops would not take this road anyway!” he declared. “No need, therefore, to waste our bloody breath mapping it!”


Sunday, August 6, 2017

Crossing the River
Chapter Two
Pages 17-20
 
They arrived at Buckminster Tavern in Framingham in the late afternoon. Speaking confidently to the proprietor, then to three servants separately, Howe performed his assigned task, De Berniere closely attending.
 
 
     Entering Worcester the following day, February 25, De Berniere had become cautiously optimistic.
     Not one provincial had exhibited suspicion while they had waited that morning for the Buckminster cook to prepare their lunch -- boiled tongue and cherry brandy -- which they were to take on the road. Thereafter, Browne, following De Berniere’s suggestion, had announced that they would not stop at any tavern during their thirty mile trek. Having covered the distance without incident, De Berniere was hopeful he would obtain the Worcester innkeeper’s complete assistance.
     A sour-mouthed, balding man, the landlord was a relative of the Weston tavern owner. Both had the same name, Isaac Jones. Accepting De Berniere’s invitation, Jones accompanied the three soldiers to their room. Two weeks earlier, he immediately told them, Worcester’s militia had ordered all townspeople to shun his establishment. Thenceforth, he had been treated with contempt. “As certain as November rain” he was being watched. Listening to the man’s whining discourse, De Berniere again felt thwarted. Only after they had established their credibility, aided in no small measure by their demonstrations of empathy, might this peevish man be willing to impart what they wanted. The next day being Sunday -- Jones having told them that Massachusetts law forbade anybody on the streets during the hours of church service -- they would have sufficient time to sway him.
 Sunday dawned through dark storm clouds. Speaking to Jones while taking his breakfast, De Berniere was pointedly cordial. Browne, following De Berniere’s unspoken prompt, behaved amiably. Between breakfast and the mid-day meal, adding details to his topographical sketches, De Berniere questioned whether inviting the proprietor to inspect his work might work to his advantage.
 Shortly before the noon hour -- the ensign yet speculating -- Jones appeared at their door. Two gentlemen wished to speak to them.
     “Who are they?” Browne asked.
     “Friends, let me say.”
     “But do we know that?”
     “I know it as fact!”
     “My companion is apprehensive because your establishment is watched,” De Berniere interpreted. “It follows that these ‘friends’ are also watched. If we should receive them,” he said gently, “it could be to our detriment.”
     “I will not have our purpose compromised,” Browne declared.
     “As you wish.” His face devoid of expression, Jones left the room.
     “May God save us from inquiring friends!” Browne exclaimed after the landlord had descended the stairs.
     Half-turned, De Berniere glimpsed on Corporal Howe’s face a chary smile.
     A half hour later the sour-faced proprietor returned.
     “The gentlemen have left,” he announced. “I bear their message.”
     Raising his chin, Browne managed to look down his nose. “And?”
     “They know you to be British officers.”
     “Indeed! I think not!”
     “Be advised that but a few friends to government know you’re in town.”
     “What then was their purpose in coming?” Browne said sarcastically.
     “That all the Loyalists of Petersham have been disarmed. The same is about to happen here.”
     Browne grunted, angled his head, uttered an expletive. “Then I suppose we shall have to conclude our business tonight!”
     De Berniere agreed. He had anticipated generalized hostility; he had not expected preemptive militancy. Jones’s establishment was watched. Three strangers had spent the night. Prominent Tories had subsequently visited. He and Browne could not risk further delay. Nor could he allow Browne to commandeer -- conviviality already shot to pieces -- this conversation!  
“You are to direct us this evening to where the town’s military stores are safe kept,” Brown said.
     Jones stiffened. “Not tonight! Not any night!” Eyes flashing, he fixated on the officers’ personal effects, arranged neatly on a narrow table beside their bed.
     Five seconds elapsed.
     De Berniere spoke. “Let us talk gently about this …”
     Damn your bleeding tongue!” Browne bellowed. “By God, I shall rip it out! Do not tell me what I do not want to hear!” His face choleric, Browne advanced. “Your loyalty, man! Your loyalty to the King! You will assist us! ”
     “So I have, as far as keeping myself safe. And I'm not so certain of that!”     Appalled, De Berniere watched Browne rise on the balls of his feet, lift aggressively his hands.
“You need not endanger yourself. If you think that, I have misspoke.” -- Too late, De Berniere thought, too late, Captain, for that! -- “We are not behindhand in our regard. We are sensible of your difficulty!”
     “Entirely,” De Berniere responded. “Let us talk about this.”
     Looking between them, not at them, Jones glared.
     “We ask only that you stroll with us about the town, in the direction of the stores. You need not point out the stores’ location! Your word of it upon our return will answer.”
     Isaac Jones shook his head. Browne’s neck muscles tightened.
     “You must accompany us to the site! We must inspect it!”
     “I am a watched man. You want me to walk the street with strangers who walk as soldiers, with no purpose apparently but to socialize, when my business is here in this tavern, where I would do that and no place else. I will not!”
     Browne’s large body expanded. “You blackguard! You … offspring of a rancid whore!” Storming past the proprietor, he pulled the door open. “Out! Get out!”

 


Friday, July 28, 2017


Crossing the River
Chapter 2, Pages 15-17
 
            Encumbered by intermittent cloudbursts, they walked the nine miles of muddy road to Framingham, De Berniere sketching topographical and wooded trouble spots. Six miles short of their destination -- John Howe having disappeared behind a stand of pines to relieve himself -- De Berniere broached his solution to their third perceived difficulty.
     He began obliquely. “The mud makes its attempt to disguise our disguise.”
     “Disguise? Mmm, yes. I take your meaning. That nestlecock in the wagon. Tearing suspicious, he was!”
     “Indeed, Captain. Despite our dissembling endeavors we are conspicuously British! The behavior of the landlord, Jones, was further evidence.”
     “Mmmm. Yes.” Centering his weight on the heels of his shoes, Browne rubbed his ample chin. He looked down his thin nose. “I suppose we shall have to do something! Our attire. As you say, it declares, ‘Arrest us!’ What's to do?”
     “Sir. What would you suggest?”
     Browne’s face flushed.
     Lord, I’ve embarrassed him!
     “When I ask you a question, ensign, I expect an immediate answer, not a question!”
     “Yes sir.”
     “Be advised not to make game with me!”
      “No sir, I would not, sir.”
      “Answer the question! What have you to advise?”
     “Nothing, sir, beyond what you yourself, I am certain, have contemplated.” He regarded Browne guilelessly.
      Arms folded across his chest, Browne frowned. “Perhaps not, but I want to hear.”
     “Yes sir. I should be happy. Permit me, however, to say that I was seeking by my question the opportunity to profit from your appreciation.”
     “Of what?”
     “Of our situation.”
     “Yes, yes. Go on.”
     “Yes sir. I shall.” De Berniere straightened. “First, … do you not think, sir, that the less we converse with the local inhabitants the less we endanger ourselves?”
     “I do.”
     “Yet some intercourse must transpire?”
     “It must.”
     “Though I have knowledge of how the provincial speaks, I confess I have not the vocal facility to mimic him.”
     “I couldn't speak his buggering tongue if life depended on it!” Staring over De Berniere's head, Browne scowled.
     “Indeed, sir. You have identified our predicament precisely.”
     Again Browne looked past him. De Berniere detected a blush of satisfaction. Proceed cautiously, he told himself.
     As to the matter of communication,” he continued, hesitantly, “have you considered Corporal Howe’s usefulness?”
     “Howe? God’s life, explain yourself!”
     “To act as our spokesman, if you will. Do you think he has the right necessities? He does have the common touch, I would say.”
     Browne drew his lips back against his teeth. De Berniere waited for the idea to germinate.
     “I admit that he does talk like them, being the lout that he is. As for knowing what to say, … what not to say …”
     “He was quick to recognize the wagon driver's suspicions.”
     “Yesss. But to know what to say … I suppose we could direct him beforehand, …”
     “I conceive that we could.”
     “But, damme, I do not like it! We should have to treat him as a bloody equal!” Browne’s scowl persisted.
     “In public you mean.”
     “Exactly!”
     “He will eat with us in taverns.”
     “Precisely.”
     “If I catch your meaning, sir, he must be one of us, or rather, if he is to represent us in conversation, we must in our deportment be quite like him.”
     The Captain harrumphed.
     “I see,” De Berniere said. “I hadn’t thought of that.”
     “I do not fancy the arrangement, De Berniere, but, given the importance of our assignment, I accept its necessity.” Looking past the ensign, focusing on the pines into which Howe had disappeared, Browne glowered. “He has been my servant several months. I am not entirely satisfied with him. This will swell his head. He will come out of this expecting a commission, which if I have my say, he will not receive!”
     “Little chance of that, I should think, sir.”
     “I suspect not. I fancy not!” Browne answered. “Cuffy enlisted men do not become officers. But I will not tell him! What we have decided. Tell Howe what we have agreed upon, how he must proceed. Unless he gets above himself, I shall not speak to the man!”
 
 
 
 
           
           
 
 
 


Thursday, July 20, 2017

Frederick Douglass -- Criticism of Abraham Lincoln
 
“We must … reach the slaveholder’s conscience through his fear of personal danger.  We must make him feel that there is death in the air around him, that there is death in the pot before him, that there is death all around him.  … I believe in agitation.  … The only way to make the Fugitive Slave Law a dead letter, is to make a few dead slave catchers.”  Douglass called for all methods that would eliminate slavery, including war.  A year after John Brown’s hanging, Douglass was but one of many that used Brown’s martyrdom to advance their cause.  Yet, much racial hatred persisted in the North.  In December, for example, an anti-slavery lecture in Boston conducted by Douglass and Wendell Phillips was interrupted by chair-throwing demonstrators who resented the idea that a war might be fought to benefit the Negro.
 
Despite the considerable anti-Negro sentiment that existed, Douglass hoped that the election of a Republican President would accelerate the changes he demanded.  Abraham Lincoln was elected, but the war which followed, the war which ultimately liberated all slaves, was instigated by the South, not by the Republican President, who had sought to reach yet another compromise to preserve the Union.  Only when most of the Southern states seceded from the Union in the early months of 1861 did President Lincoln call for the raising of a large volunteer army to put down their rebellion.  Douglass insisted persistently and continuously that the war had to be one of emancipation.  Additionally, “Let the slaves and free colored people be called into service and formed into a liberating army, to march into the South and raise the banner of Emancipation among the slaves” (Bontemps 224).
 
Abraham Lincoln was aggravatingly slow in doing that.  Perhaps Douglass did not understand the President’s difficult position.  Lincoln needed to placate the border states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri, for they had elected to remain in the Union.  And while popular sentiment in the North favored a forcible means of dealing with the Southern states that had seceded, that sentiment did not include the immediate liberation of slaves.  Following the surrender of the federal garrison at Fort Sumter, the President needed every source of support he could garner to wage what proved to be a seemingly unsuccessful, unending, and increasingly ghastly, unpopular war.  Anti-slavery advocates, including Frederick Douglass, could see only that Lincoln was not responding as they had wished.
 
“… not a slave should be left a slave in the returning footprints of the American army gone to put down their slave-holding rebellion.  Sound policy, not less that humanity, demands the instant liberation of every slave in the rebel states,” Douglass declared in a speech in Rochester June 16, 1861.  In a January speech the following year Douglass “vigorously objected to the Lincoln administration policy of returning runaway slaves to their master, and to the president’s rescinding of General John C. Fremont’s order emancipating slaves in Missouri.”  Lincoln was fighting the enemy with one hand!  “We are striking the guilty rebels with our soft, white hand, when we should be striking with the iron hand of the black man” (McFeely 212).
 
One month later the President began to show favorable signs of change.  Lincoln refused to stop the sentenced hanging of the captain, deemed a pirate, of a captured slave ship.  In the middle of March he signed a bill that ordered the army and navy not to return runaway slaves.  Afterwards, he signed into law a bill that outlawed slavery in the District of Columbia.  Encouraged, Douglass stated that the President as “tall and strong but he is not done growing.”
 
But in July, Douglass criticized Lincoln again for not making emancipation the aim of the war.  Americans, Douglass insisted, had “a right to hold Abraham Lincoln sternly responsible for any disaster or failure attending the suppression of this rebellion” (McFeely 214).  Lincoln, however, had already decided to espouse emancipation.  He had drafted a proclamation of emancipation that same month, and he presented it secretly to his cabinet on the 22nd.  Advised by his Secretary of State, William Seward, to delay its announcement until after a Union victory in the field, so that the announcement would not seem a desperate measure to counter persistent military failure, Lincoln kept his intention a secret until after the qualified Union victory at Antietam Creek in September.  At that time he announced that on January 1, 1863, he would issue a proclamation that would free slaves in the rebellious states.
 
 
Works cited:
 
Bontempts, Arna, Free at Last, the Life of Frederick Douglass, New York, Dodd, Mead & Company, 1971.  Print.
 
McFeely, William S.  Frederick Douglass.  New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1991.  Print.


Wednesday, July 12, 2017

Frederick Douglass -- Fear of Arrest
 
Douglass gave a lecture in Brooklyn and another in Philadelphia, raised a small sum of money, and then set out for Chambersburg.  Traveling with Shields Green, one of John Brown’s black supporters, Douglass entered the barbershop of Henry Watson and told the black man why he was in town.  Watson immediately set about making arrangements for a public lecture in Chambersburg, which would give Douglass a legitimate reason for being there.  He then directed Douglass and Green to the quarry at the edge of town, where Brown and his band of men were waiting.
 
They sat down on the rocks to talk, and Douglass soon discovered that Brown seemed to have forgotten his plans for establishing communities of fugitive slaves in the mountains.  … Now Brown was obsessed with the idea of taking the Harpers Ferry arsenal, which he viewed both as the emblem of the military power of a government he had learned to hate and as a source of arms with which to wage war against the slaveholders protected by that power.  Suddenly Douglass saw the whole enterprise in a different light: he was convinced it was doomed.
 
When, later in the day, Douglass met the pathetically small group of brave but, he now thought, deluded men who were determined to follow their leader’s bidding, he was still more dismayed.  … Douglass told Brown that he was “going into a perfect steel trap, and that once in he would not get out alive.”  Douglass saw no safety in Brown’s plan to protect himself by taking civilian hostages: “Virginia,” he later claimed to have declared, “would blow him and his hostages sky-high, rather than he should hold Harpers Ferry an hour.”
 
Undaunted, Brown continued for two days his attempts to persuade Douglass to join his force, saying, “I want you for a special purpose.  … When I strike, the bees will begin to swarm, and I want you to help hive them.”  Brown’s likening a rising of human beings to a swarm of stinging bees, with Douglass as the queen bee who could control them, must have made the whole enterprise seem mad. 
 
Douglas said no to Brown’s final plea that he join him, and left. 
 
On October 16, 1859, leading an army of twenty-two, Brown moved on Harpers Ferry; with expert reconnoitering and extraordinary nerve, they did manage to seize the arsenal.  Shields Green and Jeremiah Sanderson, another of Brown’s black soldiers, were sent out to rally the slaves in the region to the revolt.  As the two left on their futile assignment, they saw Robert E. Lee’s detachment of marines surrounding the arsenal.  Sanderson said to Green that they had better keep going; they could do nothing now to save Brown, but Green went back into the arsenal, saying he “must go down to de ole man.”  The rebels were all either captured or, like Green, killed (McFeely 196-197).
 
The Philadelphia newspapers of October 18 were full of the news of Brown’s raid.  That night Frederick Douglass delivered a lecture at National Hall.  The following morning he received a “very elegantly written note” from Amanda Auld Sears, Thomas and Lucretia Auld’s daughter.  She was now the wife of John Sears, a Philadelphia coal merchant.  She had heard Douglass speak the night before and wished to meet with him.
 
Choosing, whether conscious or not, to ignore the storm over one of the most sensational events in the nation’s history, an event in which he knew he was implicated, Douglass went to Sears’s office in response to the invitation.  Presumably, Amanda Sears had given Douglass her husband’s business address, but at first Sears resisted talking to Douglass at all; when he relented, he remained distant, saying that he greatly resented the attacks Douglass had made on the father-in-law, Thomas Auld, in his books.  Only reluctantly did he at length permit Douglass to call on his wife.  When the slave went to visit the mistress, he was dismayed to find the Sears’s parlor full of people, curious about the caller.  Douglass had been afraid that he might not recognize Amanda as a grown woman, but he did so immediately, and the two fell into an intimate conversation.  Amanda ignored Douglass’s years-old hortatory attacks on her father, referring instead to his affectionate recollection of her mother, Lucretia Anthony Auld, in the Narrative.  Forthrightly, she told him that she agreed with him that slavery was a wrong.  After more than two decades Douglass was pulled back into one of his families.  Years later he found out that soon after his reunion with Amanda, her father, Thomas Auld, learned of the visit and told her that she had been right to reach out and bring Frederick back (McFeely 198).
 
Almost immediately Douglass had to leave the city and go into hiding.  Amongst the papers taken from John Brown was a note written by Douglass dated December 7, 1857: “My dear Cpt. Brown, I am very busy at home.  Will you Please, come up with my son Fred and take a mouthful with me?”  The Philadelphia newspapers published the note but omitted “1857.”  Virginia’s governor, Henry Wise, subsequently demanded that President Buchanan assist in arresting Brown’s allies, included “Frederick Douglass, a negro man … charged with … inciting servile insurrection” (McFeely 198).  The note itself did not prove that Douglass was a part of Brown’s conspiracy, but Douglass had good reason to fear imminent arrest.  People in Philadelphia knew that he had brought money to Brown from the city, accompanied by Shields Green.  The authorities would soon know that as well.  Also, a fact that Douglass did not know, a teacher at Harpers Ferry knew that Brown had boasted that Gerrit Smith and Frederick Douglass knew of the insurrection.
 
Douglass received unanticipated help from a telegraph operator.  James Hern received a message from Washington ordering the sheriff of Philadelphia County to arrest Douglass.  Not only did the anti-slavery telegraph operator delay the delivery of the message three hours but he went to the house where Douglass was staying to warn him personally.
 
Douglass was dispatched on a ferry to Camden, New Jersey, transferred to a steamer to New York, took a ferry across the Hudson River to Hoboken, and spent an anxious night at the boarding house where Otilla Assing lived.  The New York newspapers furiously reported the news of Brown’s insurrection and conspiracy.  Avoiding probable arrest at the train station in New York, Douglass, with Assing, borrowed a carriage and drove it to Paterson, New Jersey, when he boarded a train to Rochester.  The day after he reached home he stepped onto a boat for Canada.  In November he sailed for England.
 
He had planned a lecture tour of the British Isles before Brown’s capture.  Since he was already a fugitive in Canada, he decided to do the tour and remove himself further from the possibility of capture.  He stayed with Julia Griffiths Crofts and her clergyman husband of less than one year in Halifax well into January before he began his tour.
 
At first he did not mention John Brown specifically in his speeches.  Eventually, as a fair measure of popular opinion in the North turned to embrace Brown as a martyr in the cause to eradicate slavery, Douglass honored the man.  Slaveholders, Douglass insisted, were in insurrection against a nation awakened by Brown and anti-slavery crusaders.  Slavery was not guaranteed by the Constitution; it was a violation of the document.  Liberty must now rule the land, not slavery, Douglass declared.  Black people, free as well as enslaved, must be given back their plundered rights.
 
Upon receiving news of the unexpected death, March 13, 1860, of his daughter, Anna, Douglass booked passage to recross the Atlantic.  He was ashore at Portland, Maine, traveled to Montreal by train, and crossed Lake Ontario to reach Rochester, uncertain that he would remain free from arrest.  Northern politicians had, fortunately for Douglass, moved to curtail Southern insistence that those allied to John Brown be prosecuted.  They did not wish to support further protection by the federal government of slaveholders’ interests.  Douglass was now free to resume his abolitionist quest.
 
 
Work cited:
 
McFeely, William S.  Frederick Douglass.  New York, W. W. Norton & Company, 1991.  Print.